We had lived in a world of petroleum-based energy for so long that we could not see the horizon through its particulate-laden fog- until President Obama diverted part of his ARRA-funding and solicited bids for overseeing the first national scale investment into electric vehicle charging infrastructure promising deployment and data collection- the EV Project. Enter ECOtality, the winning grantee. What followed has been nothing short of the jumpstarting of a new transportation technology and the construction of a foundation for this technology–the beginning of this immense national transformation of our transportation/energy system. And we must be grateful for ECOtality’s efforts to seed public infrastructure into various politically receptive ecosystems. This has been a tremendous start on the path to the future.
Now that the 2012 Presidential election has been held, and energy independence will NOT mean fracking, pipelines, and drilling, what is the best path forward for EV infrastructure? Well, its time to grow up.
We need to stop providing unilaterally allocated federal subsidies benefitting a narrow slice of the industry (i.e. ECOtality, Coulombe, AV). Infrastructure should expand beyond the heavily weighted models favoring public charging, with expensive telecomm networked fees and consumer subscription based business models, with level 3 chargers hosting TV screens that can cost a hundred thousand dollars to install, risking unsustainable demand charges to the host sites if electricity consumption exceeds a certain level. EV drivers do not need to be taught to associate public charging with rummaging around their glove box for the proper key fob only to find they failed to pre-register and create an account! We have made it all seem so complicated, costly, and inconvenient. Infrastructure should mean you charge primarily at home or work. It should mean you can pay at any public station with a credit card. If you need more energy during a particularly hectic week, you find it in the public forum and you pay for what you need and move on. It may mean the host site uses a simple keypad or RFID reader to activate the charger at your hotel or apartment complex. It doesn’t have to be touchscreens, key fobs, hassle and headaches.
Companies such as ECOtality and Coulombe have been banking on laying the framework for what they see as a self-sustaining public infrastructure revenue stream- even before the ramifications of their data on consumer behavior becomes clear. One ostensible value of the EV Project was to get Idaho National Lab to parse out the actual numbers to begin to answer fundamental questions about charging infrastructure- how to incentivize off-peak charging? When do most consumers charge? Where do they charge? What is the proper ratio of public chargers to vehicles? How much will people pay? Building a networked infrastructure model before the data analysis was completed was a calculated business decision made by ECOtality and Coulombe- that model now needs to be tested in the marketplace and improved upon.
None of these questions are simple. Indeed the process itself can skew the results. For example, Don Karner, then-President of ECOtality, reported to the DOE that the initial residential installation subsidy of $1250 was causing most installation bids to come in at…$1250. Accordingly, there was no clear data on the actual installation costs and they would be gradually phasing out the subsidy. My experience shows that is twice the actual cost for the average home install. We did need to invest in the technology- and make mistakes. And now we need to start learning from them in order to reach escape velocity.
Giving away residential charging stations to customers of two auto manufacturers (Chevy and Nissan) may have made sense to get the data collection points in the field immediately, and now we have them. That has been done and we should not extend the EV Project further. We did need to get chargers out in the field and afford utilities the opportunity to learn about linkage to their distribution system. We did need to educate public utility commissions and the energy community about time of use rates for EVs and their grid-based benefits. We did need to help auto dealers sell the vehicles by having the infrastructure come pre-packaged and added in for no extra cost. However, we now see the Chevy Volt selling over 2500 units per month- and increasing- with a current annual sales of over 19,000 units domestically. We now have added Ford, Honda, Toyota, ThinkCity, Fisker, Tesla, Audi, Coda, Mitsubishi and all the other major automakers offering vehicle models with a plug. We even have electric motorcycles- Brammo, Zero, Motorczysz. None of them currently qualify for of any the EV Project subsidies. If we are to get to the next level of deployment, we now need to level the playing field, to embrace the notion of competitive neutrality (a term which ECOtality ironically embraced in its comments before the Oregon Public Utility Commission when seeking to prevent electric utilities from having a role in supplying their own charging infrastructure). This will decrease costs, simplify installation, provide consumers with options, and benefit the total industry.
Quite simply, no one can compete with free.
Free is now inhibiting the evolution of the charging station industry, stifling competition, and preventing consumer choice. It’s time to end the EV Project subsidies and extensions and let the market provide the full range of infrastructure solutions available. Infrastructure needs to be unchained, especially in those markets where ECOtality has had a dominant presence because those regions are poised to become self-sustaining and offer the model for the rest of the country. Consumers need to see that infrastructure can be simple, cost-effective, and scaled at a variety of levels to meet a variety of needs. Its time to let us grow up. And reach for the sun.